Although you will find it possible to camp rough (ie, just stop somewhere in the countryside and pitch a tent), I'd save it for special occasions and emergencies.
You'll find most Turks exceedingly friendly, helpful and accommodating, but as a foreign cross-country cyclist you may draw attention, some of it unwanted, a bit of it perhaps dangerous.
Most Turkish towns have at least one small, cheap, very basic hotel, and many have adequately comfy budget hotels.
Camping grounds, on the other hand, are few, far between, and often not up the standards of the cheap hotels and pensions.
—by Tom Brosnahan
Special Interest Travel in Turkey